Exercise 4 – Effects of Controls
HASELL check and clearance turns done by instructor, for student understanding of precautions in flight
- During Taxiing
3.PRIMARY EFFECT OF ELEVATORS
(Pitch up/down: Select Attitudes, Return to Datum)
- Smooth and Progressive Inputs Neutral Point
4.PRIMARY EFFECT OF AILERONS
(Roll L/R, Select Attitudes, Return to Wings Level, Different Roll Rates)
- Rate of Response α Amount of Control Deflection. Neutral Point
5.PRIMARY EFFECTS OF RUDDER
- Student Controls Rudder Only Instructor Maintains Wings Level
6.FURTHER EFFECTS OF ELEVATOR
- Height/Speed Exchange Only
7.EFFECTS OF ELEVATOR AND RUDDER:
- In Banked Attitudes Controls Act Relative to Pilot (Aeroplane Axes)
8.FURTHER EFFECTS OF AILERON
- Yaw – Spiral Descent
- Teach Recovery
9.FURTHER EFFECTS OF RUDDER
- Student Induces Roll & Spiral with Rudder – Recovers
10.CONTROL PACKAGE (Aileron, Rudder, Elevator)
- At Cruise IAS and Power / Student to Note Control Inputs, / Response Rates and Feel
11.EFFECTS OF AIRSPEED
110 kts (Cruise Power, Descending)
- Student Does Control Package Firm, Effective
70 kts (Cruise Power, Climbing)
- Student Does Control Package Less Firm, Less Effective
12.EFFECTS OF SLIPSTREAM Low Slipstream (1500 PRM)
- Maintain 70 kts throughout Student Does Control Package
- All Controls Less Firm, Less Effective
High Slipstream (Full Power)
- Student Does Control Package
- Aileron Unaffected, Elevator & Rudder Firm, Effective
- Select & Hold Attitude, Sense Control Force,
- Trim out Force, Coarse then Fine.
- Wings Level
- Stop Any Yaw (Visual Reference)
- Sense Rudder Force
- Trim out Force: Coarse then Fine
- (Stress Head Up/Maintain Lookout)
14.EFFECT OF THROTTLE (Selecting RPM)
- Smooth, Gentle Movements
- More/Less Noise & RPM, Dead Band
- By Sound and Feel: Check RPM, Adjust IAS Changes with RPM (At Constant Attitude)
15.EFFECT OF POWER
- From Cruise; Trimmed “Hands Off”
- Pitch Down, Yaw Right
- Pitch Up, Yaw Left
At Constant Attitude
- Set Power by Sound & Feel, Co-ordinate: Throttle, Elevator and Rudder, Adjust; Re-trim
Sense of Movement
- RPM Reduction/Rough Running
Setting Optimum Cruise Mixture
Basic Technique / Practice Setting Whilst Maintaining Attitude Stress Fully Rich at High Power
18. CARBURETOR HEAT
- ON – RPM Drop, OFF – RPM Restored
- Stress Fully ON/OFF
Operates/ Maintaining Attitude
19.EFFECT OF FLAP
- STRESS: LIMITATION; OPERATION; INDICATION
- (Trimmed “Hands Off” 90 kts)
- Pitch Up at Each Stage
- Pitch Down at Each Stage
- Smoothly: In stages; Coordinate elevator, Intermediate trimming – if required
Rapid Retraction at Low IAS
- Sink – dangers will become apparent in later exercises
EFFECTS OF CONTROLS : AMPLIFYING NOTES
GENERAL (refer to briefing 3 for detailed explanation for the students)
- Because correct use of attitudes is the basis of all flying, the student’s ability to assess and recognize attitudes and to select and maintain them are fundamental skills on which all subsequent lessons are based. Consequently, this is the most important Exercise in the whole syllabus. As this is to be the student’s first lesson in the air, you must not rush it but ensure that the student really has achieved the aim before moving on through the syllabus. In some cases, more than one flight may be required to cover this lesson adequately.
- Points which are obvious to the experienced pilot are not so to the student and should not be glossed over or omitted: an example is the direction of movement of the rudder bar to obtain a required movement from the aircraft. Remember, too, that whilst you may be able to cope with a poor horizon, you must make sure that conditions really are suitable for your student to see and select visual attitudes.
Confine the brief to important points only. The following should be included:
1. Function of the flying controls
2. Effects of aileron – further effects
3. Effects of rudder – further effects
4. Effects of airspeed and slipstream
5. Trimming controls
6. Use of engine controls
7. Effects of power
THREAT AND ERROR MANAGEMENT
- Since the student cannot be expected to keep a good lookout at this stage, you must explain any actions that you want him to take if he spots potential hazards (e.g. other aeroplanes) and explain why threat and management is important.
- Ensure that the student knows and uses the correct method of handing over control, taking over control and “following through”.
- Make certain that the student can hear clearly and is relaxed and comfortable. Check that he holds the controls correctly. Show how the horizon is used as a reference for interpreting the aircraft attitude. Point out that the position of the nose relative to the horizon changes when the attitude changes.
- Avoid harsh control movements which are not only poor technique but may startle or cause discomfort to the student.
- Allow the student to practice all the effects demonstrated and give sufficient time for him to become used to the feel of the controls and to appreciate their effects. Be sure that the aircraft is correctly trimmed before handing over control. Show the student the datum (level flight) attitude and teach him to return to that attitude after each maneuver.
- Show the student that the horizon extends through 360° and that, when the aircraft is in the datum attitude, the nose is below the horizon and the wing tips are equidistant below it.
- For student comfort, use ailerons to show that the response of the aircraft is proportional to amount of control deflection but stress the effect applies to all controls and that the effect only lasts whilst the control is deflected – neutral point.
- When teaching the primary effect of rudder, the wings must remain level. So give the student control of the rudder only and maintain wings level with the aileron yourself.
Spiral descent and recovery. Demonstrate effects of elevators and (particularly) rudder when the aeroplane is banked so that the student can recognize yaw when the wings are not level. To ensure that the student appreciates that only one control is being used in your demonstration, allow him to follow through on all the controls.
EFFECT OF AIRSPEED
- Teach the Control Package: aileron, rudder, elevator. Stress making the same control inputs in every practice, regardless of the feel.
- Ensure that the student appreciates that, although the effectiveness of the controls is reduced and the control response becomes poorer when the speed is reduced, a measure of positive control is still available.
EFFECTS OF TRIM
- Briefly remind the student of the purpose of the trimming control. This can be done by giving the student control, telling them to maintain the datum attitude while you put the aeroplane out of trim and allow him to feel the control loads. Then teach the use of the elevator trim. Emphasize that adjustment to the aircraft pitch attitude must always be made by the elevators and that the trimmer should then be adjusted until no force is required to maintain the attitude. When teaching use of the rudder trim, stress the importance of maintaining lookout ahead to hold the datum attitude and confirm there is no yaw. Stress: Select; Hold; Trim; Check
- The natural sense of engine control movements and some gauge indications can best be introduced during the pre-flight power check. In the air, stress using sound and feel to set power initially so that lookout is maintained.
EFFECT OF POWER
- Demonstrate the pitch and yaw effects of power, hands off in the cruise, then teach how to maintain the datum attitude during power changes. Allow the student to re-trim the aircraft after power has been changed.
EFFECTS OF FLAP
- Stress the importance of checking IAS is below VFE before selecting flap. Begin the demonstration of extending flap from level flight, trimmed hands off, at just below VFE. Pause only briefly between each selection to avoid excessive speed decay and so ensure the aeroplane pitches up at every stage. Conversely, the aeroplane will pitch down as the flap is retracted. Teach smooth, progressive movement of flap lever and how to use the elevator to maintain a constant attitude – intermediate (coarse) trimming is allowed if control forces are high. Demonstrate that the aeroplane sinks if the flap is retracted quickly at low IAS (60 kts).
- Probably the most common fault during this exercise is a failure to use the correct hand-over/take-over procedures. Make sure you always do and that your student does too.
Note: It is good to randomly return to one of the previously introduced maneuver during the lessons as especially in the future exercises, it will help you to understand the student is catching the information well.
- Check, where the students eyes on, remind them to look outside for 80% of time and 20% on instruments for cross checking. In the beginning of training most of the students want to look at the instruments.