Exercise 7 – Climbing
1. MAINTAINING THE CLIMB
- View ahead reduced
Climb at Recommended IAS
- Attitude adjustments to control IAS
- Climbing checks – Weave, Ts & Ps
2. LEVELLING OFF
- Anticipate (50 ft) – 10% of RoC
- Attitude – for level at 70 kts
- Full power acceleration to cruise IAS (Progressively adjust attitude, trim)
- Power – adjust to cruise
- Top of Climb Checks
- LOOKOUT – Stress above/behind
- Power – Full, balance (PYR)
- Attitude – select climb
- Trim – elevator and rudder
4. CRUISE CLIMB, BEST ANGLE, WITH FLAP
- Not taught on initial Climbing lesson
- Practical application
- Technique similar
- Lower nose attitude – Better forward view
- Minimal anticipation
- Attitude and Power – select both for “Cruise” immediately
- Standard but power as required
- Same technique as normal climb but:
- Higher nose attitude/poorer view
- Lower IAS – poorer engine cooling, gentle maneuvers only
- Practical applications
- Safe height and speed before retracting
CLIMBING: AMPLIFYING NOTES
● This is a relatively simple exercise which is usually taught in the same lesson as Exercise 8 – Descending, for 2 reasons: it is efficient (what goes up must come down)and some aspects (e.g. attitude controlling IAS and incorporation of checks) are common to both – which reinforces teaching.
1. Recommended airspeeds
2. Engine handling
3. Effect of altitude
4. Effect of flap
THREAT AND ERROR MANAGEMENT
1. Stress again the importance of a good lookout – especially above and behind and in the area under the nose. Teach how to “clear the area” by weaving or changing heading.
2. The engine is at full power, the speed is relatively low (even worse in Vx climb), so engine cooling is poor. Emphasize periodic checks of Ts&Ps in hot conditions, possible need to reduce power, increase IAS or even level off temporarily to avoid overheating.
BEST RATE OF CLIMB
1. It is most effective and efficient to begin by teaching how to maintain the climb. Teach the datum climbing attitude and how to make small attitude adjustments to maintain 70 kts. Maintain for 3000 ft or 4000 ft initially for student to learn technique and incorporation of climb checks. Ensure the student flies in balance and trims both elevator and rudder.
2. Next cover levelling off. Remember, this is just a particular case of a full power acceleration (learned by your student on the previous lesson), so DO NOT OVER-TEACH but remind him to leave power applied while the aeroplane accelerates. With a good student you need only brief him and let him get on with it!
3. Finally, teach the entry. Stress LOOKOUT before entry, maintaining balance as power is applied but that the natural pitch up tendency should not be fought but be exploited and controlled to select the climb attitude. Re-trim once settled in the climb.
A cruise climb is usually only used for small changes in altitude, e.g. between legs on a navigation lessons. Consequently, it may best be taught when it is necessary, during the navigation phase.
BEST ANGLE OF CLIMB
1. This is, essentially an application of “Exercise 10 – Slow Flight”, so is usually taught then. It is usually needed to ensure terrain clearance but stress the dangers of getting into the situation where a Vx climb is required for survival!
a. The higher nose attitude, with larger blind spots under the nose with the need to pay particular attention to checking the area is clear.
b. Limited margin above the stall and the need to maneuver gently.
c. Poorer engine cooling, requiring frequent checks of Ts&Ps.
CLIMB WITH A FLPAS
- Prolonged climbs with flaps are not required. Instead this is required as part of the process of transitioning from descents with flap to a clean climb – e.g when going around or recovering from stalls with flap. Consequently it is best taught at the end of the Descending exercise. See Exercise 8 for details.
1. Students often fail to anticipate and correct yaw after changing power. They also need to remember changes in rudder effectiveness with changing airspeed and pay continual attention to balance and trimming. Some students do not allow enough time for the airspeed to stabilize and consequently chase the ASI needle – correct this fault by emphasizing attitude flying.
2. It’s quite common for students to reduce power as soon as they begin to level off. Stress leaving full power applied during the acceleration to cruise IAS.